***SAHARSA district ::  A brief profile***


            Earlier Saharsa district was within Bhagalpur Division. 

Kosi Division was formed on 2nd  October 1972 comprising of Saharsa, Purnia and Katihar district with its head quarters 
at Saharsa. 

Similarly a new Civil Sub-Division Birpur was created on 01.12.1972. 

Consisting of 24 development Blocks viz. Raghopur, Chhatapur, Basantpur and Nirmali which were previously under 

supaul subdivision of this district. Two new districts Madhepura & Supaul have been formed from Saharsa district on 30.04.1981 and 1991. Saharsa district now consists of 2 subdivisions, viz. Saharsa Sadar and Simri Bakhtiarpur. The district consists of 10 development blocks and anchals each.


                Saharsa was created on  1st  of  April 1954. Formerly it had no independent status and parts of Saharsa were included in the old districts of Munger & Bhagalpur  A large parts of the district in the past was subjected to annual floods and inundation by a host of rivers origination from the Himalayas. The sub terai was noted for rice cultivation before it was subjected to the vagaries of the unpredictable Koshi.


The district has been largely influenced by its geography. Whatever humans of historically important sites that may have existed here have been virtually started by the repeated flooding at the koshi during the last half century or so. With the efforts of some early Europeons however, some important historical objects or landmarks have been preserved in a few places and it is on the basis of these that some kind of a connected account of the early history of the district can be constructed.



            In ancient times Vaishali was the strongest republic in North-Bihar and beyond that lay the famous territory of Anguttarap. There was a small Janpad, named Apna, in Anguttarap and it included a portion of the district of Shaharsa. Although it is not confirmed whether this was a republic it is certain that the people of this area were outside the influence of the Lichchhavis. Various sites of the district, now completely eroded and destroyed by the kosi, viz. Biratpur, Budhiagarhi, Budhnaghat, Buddhadi, Pitahahi and Mathai are associated with Budhism. Before the advent of Kosi in the district these sites supplied important materials, and during the district these sites supplied important materials, and during the  period of erosis big buildings and huge construction which lay covered under them were noticed falling into the river. Local legends confirm that Lord Budha nad Lord Mahavira passed through the district during their missinonary travels and delivered important sermons.


            Both Anga and North Bihar (including Shaharsa) continued to be independent till the early part of the sixth century B.C. For some time Magadh remained an intigral part of Anga. But soon the prosperity of Anga declined. Bimbsar, theking of Magadh, annexed Anga to his empire. Though Anga seems to have continued as an independent Janpad. This was the characteristic of the whole of north Bihar untill it was finally conquered by Ajatsatru. It was who finally defeated the Lichhavis and other independent republics of north Bihar and annexed the whole territory to the Kingdom of Magadha. The Magadhan empre was growing repidly and the whole of Bihar was brought under the sway of Magadhan rule by the Nandas and Mauryas.


            In the first decade of this century a board of 58 punch marked coins of the Mauryan period was discovered from Gorhoghat. Later, the same type of coins were found at Patuaha by prof. R.K.Choudhary in 1956. He also came across some pieces of black polished ware near Mahishi and its surroundings. The Mauryan rule in this area stands firmly confirmed by a Mauryan  pillar at Sikligarh on the Banmankhi-Forbesganj Road and another in the Kishanganj Police Station. Since Saharsa was a border district even in those days, the Mauryan rulers apparently took special care to guard its frontiers.


            The Mauryans were supplanted by Sungas and Kanvas and there did not seem to have been major political change in the district. Whether the Kushans conquered this portion cannot be determined.


Between 320 and 1097 A.D.

            Under the Guptas (from 320 A.D.) the entire North Bihar was consolidated as a Tirbhukti (province) with its capital at Vaishali. Therefore, the forward province came to be known as Bhukti and the district came to be known as Vishaya. In North Bihar, there were two Bhuktis, viz. Tirabhukti (practically the whole of North Bihar) and Pundravardhanbhukti (included a portion of Saharsa, Purnia and a portion of North Bengal). The extent of Saharsa during the period under review was upto the confines of Pundravardhanbhukti which included some of its present area.


            After the decline of the Guptas the political gap came to be utilised by all contemporary chiefs. Taking advantage of the situation the Varmans of Kamrup (Assam) extended their authority up to the confines of the Kosi. The rule of purnavarman over North Bihar included the  present district of Saharsa. The rise of Harsha in 7th century A.D. was an event of great importance. He brought under his sway the whole of Nothern India. But the death of Harsha in 647 A.D. once again let loose the forces of disintegration.


            The Palas of Bihar and Bengal (8th century) A.D. gave a stable administration to the district. As South Bihar was pressed by the Kalchuris, the plas apparently shifted to North Bihar and Saharsa might have been their head quarters during the time of Vigraphapala-III. Quite a few villages in Saharsa district are associated with the names of pala rulers and it was through this district that the Palas could establish contact with Nepal. From the geographical point of view Saharsa was the most strategically suited from being the Jayaskandharar (temporary Capital) of the Palas at the time when they were surrounded on all sides by enemies.


Between 1097 and 1765 A.D.

           The decline of the Pala authority in Bihar and Bengal was followed by the establishment of the Karnata in Mithila and the sena dynasties in Bengal. Both the Kanrnatas and senas claimed authority over portion of Saharsa and often entered into armed conflict.


            Nanyadeva, the first of the Karnatas, extended his influence from Champaran to Purnia. Probably, the two chiefs (Nanyadeva of the Karnatas dynasty and Vijay Sena of the Sena Dynasty) were allies who fell into disagreement over division of territory. The deopna inscription of Vijay Sena indicated that Nanyadeva was defeated and imprisoned some where in Supaul Sub division. It was Gangadeva, his son who liberated him. The sanokar inscription of vallalassena proves that his rule extended upto the district  of Bhagalpur.


            The two sons of Nanyadeva, Malladeva and Gangadeva apparently drove the senas further east as indicated by the setting up of Gangapur Ranani (named after Gangadeva) in pargana Nishanpur Kurha and Maldiha (named after Malladeva) on the Saharsa-Purnia border. The Village Malhad  ‘near Supaul is also associated with Malladeva. Gangadeva was succeeded by Narasimha deva during whose reign Mithila and Nepal were separated. 


            Gradually, the Tughlaq authority in Mithila weakend. Haji Illyas of Bengal taking advantage of this situation invaded Tirhut and defeated its ruler. He divided the Tirhut kingdom into two parts. As a result of this division the district of Saharsa came under the control of Oinwara rulers. The most famous king of this line was shicasimha, who issued gold coins. Vidyapati the famous poet, lived under his patronage.


After the fall of oinwaras, there was virtual chaos. The Gandhaviya Rajputs are said to have acquired power and ruled during this period of confusion. Thei Gandha variya trace their descent from the ruling chiefs of thrhut. The whole district of Saharsa was dotted with small chief transships created both by the Hindus and the Muslims. Even in the early past of Mughal rule they could venture to oppose the central authority as Bihar and the Afghans were opposed to the establishment of Mughal authority. The Karranis and the Afghans, in collusion with the local Rajput rulers and petty chiefs had made this district the centre of revolt.


Raja Todarmal made the revenue settlement in Subah, Bihar in 1852. the very fact that most of the existing parganas of the district of Saharsa were assessed during the time of Akbar shows that the district had acquired administrative siquifrence. During the course of the Mughal rule, the present district of Saharsa seems to have formed parts of Sarkar Tirhut, Sarkar Munger and Sarkar Purnia. The Muslim rule N\naturally had its influence on the life and culture of people. Some of the Rajput zamindars also became converts. The Muslims of Nawahatta circle in the district of Saharsa are said to have been originally Rajputs and their conversion in traced to the Mughal times. It is said that in 1654 Shahjehan bestowed the title of Raja on Kesri Sinha (Ancestor of sone-barsa Raj). Raja Fateh Singh of the same line is said to have sided with the East India Company against Mr. Kasim in the battle of Udhuanala in 1763.


In 1764 Saharsa passed with the rest of Bengal under the Control of East India company. During the Independence Movement of 1857, the people in revolt remained unchecked by the administration of Purnia and Bhagalpur and they moved unchecked through the terai area. They were very active in different parts of the district of Saharsa  which was in the midst of a great turmoil. Since then it continued to be an important centre for various kinds of Political agitations directed against the British administration.


The district of Saharsa played an important part in the Annie Besant in 1917 and Satyagarah Movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1921 received widespread support in the district. In Saharsa, the freedom movement was led, among others, by Sarvashri Mahtal Lal Yadava, Shivanandan Mandal, Nand Kishore Chaudhary, Rajendra Mishra, Ram Bahadur Sinha, Yadunanadan Jha and Rajendra Lal Das. Supaul and Madhepura Jails were full of Political prisioners. Thana Bihpur (in Bhagalpur district) was the scene of great activity where Dr. Rajendra Prasad was bitterely beaten by the police and the people of Saharsa were much agitated over this. Picketing tool place all over the district with full Vigour. The Period between 1930 and 1942 was marked by various Kisan agitations all over the district fro Bakast lands.


The August revolution of 1947 formed a land mark in the history of the freedom movement in Saharsa district too. On the 29th of August, there was police firing at Saharsa and a number of persons were killed. After his escape from the Hazaribagh Jail in 1942 Sri Jay Prakash Nayayan visited Saharsa district on his way to Nepal.


Sri Siyaram Singh of Bhagalpur formed Siyaramdal which had its branches in different parts the district of Saharsa in December 1942. Sri Siyaram Singh met Sri Jaya Prakash Narayan in Nepal where a conference on the works of Bihar was held under the presidentship of Shri Shivanandan Mandal.


The district played a prominent role in the subsequent events which continued till the country’s independence.


***MADHEPURA district ::  A brief profile ***

 The present Madhepura district had already got the status of subdivision on 09/05/1845 in which there were seven blocks. Saharsa district today was then the revenue circle of Madhepura at that time. When Saharsa became a district on 01/04/1954, Madhepura became its subdivision. Madhepura subdivision which had seven blocks at that time, was given the status of a district on 09/05/1981.On 21/05/83 Uda-kishunganj Block was upgraded and made a subdivision of Madhepura district in the name of Uda-kishunganj. Besides seven old blocks, four new blocks came in to existence in the year  1994. There were Gwalpara, Puraini, Bihariganj and Shankarpur. First thee blocks come under uda-kishunganj subdivision and last one is under Madhepura subdivision. Later on two more new blocks were constituted in the name of Ghailar and Gamaharia, under Madhepura subdivision in 1999.

District Profile                                                                                          

State : Bihar ( 10 )                                                                           District  : Madhepura ( 11 )
Sl. Parameter Census year
 No. 1991 2001
  T R U T R U
1 2 6 7 8 3 4 5
1 Population :                            Persons 1177706 1100869 76837 1526646 1458679 67967
                                               Males 624689 582055 42634 797180 760198 36982
                                               Females 553017 518814 34203 729466 698481 30985
2 Decadal growth rate : 22.16 29.63
3 Density : 659 854
4 Sex ratio (Total Population) : 885 891 802 915 919 838
5 Sex ratio ( 0 - 6 Population) : 942 940 984 927 927 930
6 Percentage of 0-6 Population : Persons  20.91 21.05 18.89 21.64 21.86 16.94
                                               Males 20.30 20.53 17.16 21.51 21.77 16.13
                                               Females 21.61 21.65 21.05 21.79 21.96 17.91
7 Percentage of Urban Population :  6.52 4.45
8 Literacy rate :                         Persons 27.72 25.88 53.35 36.07 34.54 66.86
                                               Males 39.31 37.28 65.79 48.80 47.36 76.42
                                               Females 14.41 12.90 37.07 22.11 20.57 55.21
9 Percentage of Main Workers : Persons 36.01 36.59 27.73 32.64 33.04 24.09
                                              Males 50.72 51.39 41.63 45.69 46.02 38.76
                                              Females 19.40 19.99 10.42 18.39 18.92 6.57
10 Percentage of Marginal           Persons 1.67 1.71 0.99 12.16 12.49 5.13
                      Workers :          Males 0.10 0.10 0.10 6.01 6.06 5.13
                                              Females 3.44 3.52 2.09 18.87 19.48 5.13
11 Percentage of Non Workers :  Persons 62.32 61.70 71.28 55.20 54.47 70.78
                                              Males 49.18 48.51 58.28 48.30 47.92 56.10
                                              Females 77.17 76.49 87.49 62.74 61.60 88.29
12 Percentage of SC Population : Persons  16.34 16.70 11.17 17.06 17.33 11.38
                                               Males 16.11 16.53 10.48 16.83 17.10 11.10
                                               Females 16.60 16.90 12.03 17.32 17.57 11.71
13 Percentage of ST Population : Persons  0.71 0.73 0.32 0.61 0.63 0.23
                                              Males 0.67 0.70 0.28 0.58 0.60 0.23
                                              Females 0.74 0.77 0.37 0.64 0.66 0.23
  • Density                              :-
  • Geographical Area            :- 1792.50 Sq. K.m
  • Main Crops                       :- Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Jute, Oil Seeds/Sunflower, Pulse
  • Main Horticulture             :- Mango, Banana, Guava, Coconut, Litchi

Climatic  Condition

Madhepura district is situated between 25 31 and 26 20 latitude and in the middle of 86 36 to 87 07 longitudes. The maximum temperature of this district ranges from 35 to 40 degree Celsius and the minimum temperature varies from 7 to 9 degree Celsius. The average rail fall in this district is 1300mm.

Cultivating Land Utilization                                                                                                 

The total areas of land for cultivation is 1,36,646 Hectare. Besides these, There is 1772 hectare of famished land which can be used for cultivation. 1272 hectare of barren land is covered with sand and rest areas of barren land is 3644 hectare. Procurement areas of paddy crop is 52165 hence, wheat is grown in 31431 hectare of land, maize in 34098 hectare of land, sugarcane is 801 hectare of land and potato is grown in 1442 hectare of land. Coconut Development  Board, owned by Central Government, is situated in this district.

Facilities of Irrigation

Irrigation facilities to 77414 hectare of land are available in the district. The total number of state boring in the district is 3018 where as, 914 borings are owned and operated by the different people of this district. The total number of state tube wells in the district is only 31


Industries and business

The condition of the industries and business is the district is beggar’s description due to the lock of proper development in the field of agriculture and industry. No big industry has been set up in the district. Even the condition of the small scale industries is not satisfactory. Only eight small scale industries are running in the district besides there, 2875 very small industries are running here.

The registered unit under factory act is 323 and 2981 persons are employed in there units. There are 200 marketing societies and 21 markets in the district under market management. 32 weekly markets are also held in this district. There are five nationalised banks in the district, giving their services to industrial and commercial areas with its 64 branches.


                                       Animal wealth and poultry                                                                                                    

The statistics of animal wealth and poultry in the district is as follows:

              Buffalo (High breed)         - 2177

              Buffalo (General breed)     - 109407

              Cow (High breed)             - 9285

              Cow (General breed)         - 165429

Along with the above statistics, there are about 222886 goats, 30580 pigs are tamed. Under poultry industries about 110720 ( Cocks and hens) are estimated.


Rural Electrification

The condition of the rural electrification is deplorable. Only 161 villages are electrified.


Facilities of rural Communication

In the matter of road communication, this district is the most backward of all the districts of Bihar. The length of metalled road in this district is only 317 km. and the total length of unmetalled road is 376 km. which is very less in Comparison to the total areas of the district. Besides these, there are 8 state dispensaries/sadar hospital,146 primary Health center,16 Animals hospitals and 3 artificial breeding centers in the districts.

Tele  Communication

Two Telegram offices and 102 post offices are functioning in the district.

            Police Administration

There are 8 police stations, 6 subsidiary police station and 5 out posts are at work in the districts.



834 Govt. schools are imparting education in the districts. Bhupendra Narayan Mandal University is situated at the district headquarter, Madhepura and adding glory to the educational atmosphere of this district.

Administrative Set up                                                                                                                               

                    The district Divided in two Subdivision and 13 blocks and 13 circle.





 ***SUPAUL district ::  A brief profile***

Supaul district occupies an area of 2,425 square kilometres (936 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Antarctica's Anvers Island.

Supaul district is bounded by Nepal to the north, Araria district to the east, Madhepura and Saharsa districts to the south and Madhubani district to the west.

Supaul district is a part of Kosi division.

The Koshi River flows through this district, which is regularly affected by the flood caused by this river. It is home district of internationally renowned designer Govind Kumar Singh . Today Supaul is also widely known for its famous International School, Bivha International school of Health & Science, which is India's single campus offering more than 1500 programs from KG to P.G.


Supaul district comprises the following Sub-Divisions:

Supaul sub-division consists of four blocks, namely, Supaul, Kishanpur, Saraigadh-Bhaptiyahi and Pipra. Birpur sub-division is further divided into three blocks, namely, Basantpur, Raghopur and Pratapganj. Triveniganj sub-division has two blocks,namely, Triveniganj and Chhatapur. Nirmali sub-division comprises two blocks, namely, Nirmali and Maruna.


Supaul, Triveniganj, Birpur, Nirmali, Kishanpur, Saraigadh-Bhaptiyahi, Pipra,Veena,Garh-Baruari, Basantpur, Simrahi bazar,Raghopur,Karjain, Pratapganj, Shyamnagar, Chhatapur, Jadiya, parsarma, Bihra - Patory,Motipur-Birdah,

Progressive villages

The district consists of many progressive villages in which prominent are
(1)Saroja Bela, Andauli, Veena,Babhangama, Barail, Laukaha Bazar, Baruari, Parsarma, Sukhpur, 
Karnpur, Ratauli, 'Solhani' Ratuli, Jagatpur and Barail is a historical village 
because it was the epicentre of freedom struggle in Supaul district. 
Gandhi Jee also visited Barail and Jagatpur in 1934.

The road by which Mahatma Gandhi had passed is still known as Gandhi road in survey. 
Sri Satrughan babu of Barail was one of the most important freedom fighter in Supaul district. 
Land for congress office was donated by his family which `was known at that point of time as family of Jhumku Babu. Sri Satrughan Babu has encouraged young leaders like... 
late Ex MLA Sri Lahtan Chaudhry and Ex MLA Pramod Kumar Singh which was acknowledged by him in his autobiography.


Sri Rajedra Prasad and other senior leader of congress has visited Barail so many times during freedom struggle. 

Sri Vinoba Bhave got huge chunk of land in Barail from prominent families for his Bhoodan Andolan. 
Sri Satrughan babun was given congress ticket in first assembly election but he died in tractor accident before the election. 

Later on his nephew Sri Umasankar Singh has reperesented Supaul assembly constituency 4 times. 
Ex MLA Pramod Kumar singh reperesented Supaul assembely constituency one time in 1985. 
Barail is also having distinction of giving two MLA to supaul assembly constituency. 
First one was Sri Umasanker Singh and second one was Sri Amrendra Singh who defeated Sri Umasanker Singh in 1977 election.

Supaul's famous wood businessman Sri Abhay Prasad singh urf lalan Jee is also from Ratuli. 
Jaidev Lal Das was the first person who came to the land of present Jagatpur approx three hundred (300) years ago from Kandaha. 

The name of our village "Jagatpur" was named after his (Jaidev) name. Presently Kandaha is a village between Bangoan and Mahishi of Saharsa district. 
Presently, the Jagatpur village comes in Goth-Baruari panchayat of Supaul district. It is well known by the village of Kayasth and other castes like Brahman, Dhanuk, Nai etc. reside with harmony. 
Karnpur is an ideal village with 90% concrete houses. 

95% of population has access to clean toilets and drinking water. 
Janmastmi festival of Karnpur is famous for its glitz and glitter. 

 is the most progressive village of Solhani-Sukhpur Panchayat of Supaul District. 
Saraswati Pooja (Basant Panchami), Chhath, Holi and Diwali festivals are celebrated with great zeal here. There is a big Bargad Tree "Banyan Tree" nearby village School by the side of road which is very old and attracts the passers at Solhani. 

The Gram Pnachyat comprises two villages which is known as Solhani -Sukhpur Gram Panchayat.

In accordance with Maithil Panchakaar (record keeper)the primordial native of this village is Brahmin known as "Tanah Puriye, Solhani" that's why the name of the village is known as "Solhani". 
It is also said that the people of the sixteen natives live here, that's why its name had Solhani. 
Maithili is the main language of this village. Late Rameshwar Khan alias Batuk Khan was one of the greatest freedom-Fighter of Supaul Distt. 

associated with Mahatma Gandhi was born in this village itself. 
Late Pandit Chandrashekhar Khan Famous Thumri Singer who was awarded by the Title of "Swar Samrat" 
by the then President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad was also a native of this village. 
He was awarded by also another awards for his great singing. 

Dr. Rajendra Jha Associate Professor and HOD Political Science at B.S.S. Collage, 
Supaul is also a glory of this village. 

Solhani Village is bounded by Sukhpur to the North, Dudha to the South, Balha & Parsarma to the East and to the west is Dhorey-Kataiyya. Baruari is another progressive village of the district. 
Barail is well connected to the district headquarter. Like Barail, Baruari is also an ideal village as it has got concrete roads high schools etc. 

Durga pooja festival of Barail and Baruari is famous for its fair and it is celebrated with great enthusiasm in both village. 

Rajpoots are the main native of both villages. 
Parsarma village is also a well known village of koshi region. 
Natives of this village is mainly GANWARIYA RAJPUT. Besides it other caste & community are also staying here with harmony. 

Parsarma is the birthplace of great sant SHRI LAKHAMINATH GOSAI.
There is a kuti of sant. 

Five villages of Supaul district is known as Panchmahala (Five Storey Building)these are Barail, Baruari,Parsarma,Sukhpur and Manganj (Few people consider Panchgachhia of Sahrsa district instead of Manganj). 

In popular culture these villages are considered to have edge on other villages. 
BEENA BABHANGAM ANDAULI is a famous and very developing villagege of supaul district it is situated 6 km from supaul towards veena ekma station. 
 is very famous festival in ANDAULI-(Ashu-Andauli),and KOZAGARA is famous and unique festival of BABHANGAMA. 

Ekma is another village situated 8 km from Supaul. 
Basbitty village is also 6 km from Supaul Town. This is very good village.
Durga puja & janmashtami is very famous in the village.

-- Freedom Struggle in Supaul District—The important freedom fighters of Supaul districts are :-

1. Sri Satrughan Babu 2. Sri Lahtan Chaudhry

Supaul was very active in Freedom struggle. In 1942 all important congress leaders were arrested and their families were threatened.


Agriculture is the major occupation of this district and paddy is the main crop.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Supaul as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). From Dec 2012, Bivha International Child Fund is funding for education in Supaul (koshi division). Several program are funded for education, agriculture from Bivha International School, Bivha Rural Development fund, national banks, NABARD, & World Bank. A dairy farm, which produce approx 1,00,000 liter milk per day, has been also established by Bivha Corporation in simrahi Bazar (Supaul). 


According to the 2011 census Supaul district has a population of 2,228,397. roughly equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 204th in India (out of a total of 640) districts. The district has a population density of 919 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,380 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 28.62%.Supaul has a sex ratio of 925 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 59.65%.


The well-known historical and religious place, namely, Durga Sthan, lies in Supaul district and it is only 10 km (6 mi) away from the district headquarters.